From the dark past of chinchillas
Chinchilla, perhaps, the first of the cat's colors, not just discovered, but consciously created and enshrined breeders. The first cat named Chinnie, color which marked the beginning of the breeding work was detected in 1882 in the cattery Ms. Hart in England. Of course, with a modern point of view of the then cats "long-haired breeds, thoroughbred called difficult. Example, colors parents Chinnie remained unknown. But we know that her mother came from a famous prize-winners and winners of the cat show. Since the origin of the father is not so "pure" suggest that his grandfather was Chinnie thoroughbred cat, brought to England from nowhere.
It is unknown how got his nickname ancestor silvery chinchillas Chinnie, and whether this moniker is somehow linked with the established later called color. But it is likely that the owners Chinnie noticed the resemblance of its color with the color of fur is a valuable fur-bearing rodent, chinchilla, or rock rabbits, silver (so called "in honor" of the same rodent). But the similarity shaded-cats with proper chinchilla "very superficial. If the cats just dyed the tips of the hair, the rodents on the hair white (bleached) and dark bands alternate. Color rodents formed by mutation of the gene of albinism. Responsible for the gene structure and activity of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is impossible without the participation of the formation of pigment. As a result of mutation "Chinchillidae" tyrosinase gene has a cyclic activity, instead of "work" time. In other words, the enzyme protein on its basis is formed with an interval of 2-3 days, because of which arise in the growing hair is colored, containing pigment zone, discolored patches. It is determined zonarny color themselves have rodents, chinchillas, mice, rabbits and even dogs. But in cats, chinchillas!
Chinnie was acquired by another English breeder Mrs. Vellans, which certainly are interested in an unusual color. Ms. Vellans tried to find Chinnie cat if not the same, then at least a similar color. And this cat is actually found! It was Fluffy I Mrs. Akland, born in 1883, again from unknown imported parents! However, the origin did not prevent him subsequently to win at the British cat shows. Color Chinnie and Fluffy contemporaries described as "very pure silver, with an uncertain pattern tabby" (probably just such a figure is now called the "shadow" or "ghost"). From this pair received two silver litter of kittens. Although two of them, cats, over the next two years, successfully exhibited, the offspring get from them did not have time: cats have disappeared, perhaps, have died or been stolen. Continuer kind was a cat named Beauty. From smoky cat Champion Perso she gave birth to the legendary Silver Lambkin first officially recognized Chinchillidae cat. In fact, it was for Silver Lambkin was founded in 1894, an exhibition class chinchillas.
At the beginning of XX century, chinchillas were so scarce that the breeders had to "stretch" to them and silver tabby, and smoky, and the blue cats. That is why the requirements for color, though officially recognized, can not be called well-established. In our current view, chinchillas in the photographs of that time appear to be too dark and unevenly dyed, with overly bright pattern on the limbs, tail and snout. But by 1930 the livestock chinchillas increased so much that it became possible to improve the targeted color.
A brighter future chinchillas
The original color wore one name chinchilla and existed only in the long-haired (later called the Persian) breed. In fact, the term "chinchilla" refers to both the color and breed of cat. Subsequently, the color was divided into more light, "actually chinchillas, and darker," Silver Shaded. Only in the late 70's, these colors begin to "enter" to other breeds, primarily in British and exotic. "Donors" of color were, of course, Persian cats. Also appears another name for color, giving the English felinology specifically for chinchillas nepersidskih tippirovanny, that is, literally, with the tips (with the colored tips of the hair). Currently, both names are actually used interchangeably and mean the only color, but do not breed cats.
Colors in this group was assessed by the uniformity and homogeneity of Tipping and quality of "silver". In an ideal chinchilla hair ends should be dyed at 1 / 8 of total length hair, chest, abdomen, inner part of the legs, chin white. Hind paw to hock also usually white. There are no signs of drawing on the body, tail and limbs missing. Pads primary color (in black chinchilla black or sealskin, a blue-gray, pink, etc.). The eyes and nose are pink mirror surround the main color. The silver-shaded color is more depth Tipping: Outer hair dyed at 1 / 3, and top coat on the back, along the spine somewhat deeper. Residual image may appear in the form of unclosed bands on the limbs.
Triune essence Chinchillidae
One of the major genes that determine the cat's "Chinchillidae" so-called inhibitor of melanin. The question of what exactly the gene responsible for the difference between silver tabby and shaded, almost half a century is haunted felinologist. To prove it was an American breeder K. Johnson. In her kennel from silver-shaded cat and marbled cat kittens were obtained with a drawing on his legs, tail, neck, and without pattern or with very weak ("shadow") pattern on the body. After the return crossing of these animals are observed between the three options tabbies (both parents): marble, without a pattern ", which is quite expected, and appeared from somewhere, and even tiger kittens. Therefore, in the genotypes of parents attended the three alleles of marble, tiger and bespolosogo tabby. But three of these alleles can not belong to the same gene Tabby! Therefore, allele, which "erases" image and is "common ticked" coat, not included in the locus of Tabby. K. Johnson called this gene Unpatterned. Thus, for the appearance of Chinchillidae color of the combination of the three alleles of different loci: A - I - U -.
The quality of the tips of the hair
Dyed hair ends are never completely uniform. There is no way that all Ear hairs on the back, rump and sides of the cats were dyed in accuracy to 1 / 3 or 1 / 8, but the closer the color of the animal to this ideal, the higher it is valued. Do chinchillas uniformity Tipping is usually better expressed than in shaded specimens. A careful examination of recent wool often shows that some hairs painted the very end, others have two dark stripes, others dyed to almost half. There are even pure white and pure black hairs. Occasionally noted the existence of ticked hairs. Often there are hairs mixed type ticked and tippirovannye simultaneously with a white base and ticked the upper part. Animals with a pronounced unevenness Tipping look "polluted".
Residual stripes on the legs and the tail is another common problem shaded colors. If unconfined bands on the limbs shaded color standard permits, the presence of rings on the tail is considered a significant drawback. 15-20 years ago such a defect of color could be a basis for denying the title. In recent years relevant to this type of residual image from the majority of the judges became more lenient, which, though not benefited the quality of color. With regard to inheritance of this trait, some authors (eg, K. Gelfo) suggest that it does not depend on genes, "erasing drawing" on the body. Most breeders of the opinion that the picture on the body and limbs "erase" one and the same gene, and the whole thing only in its active "work."
The quality of "silver" is primarily defined by the activity of a gene-inhibitor of melanin, is in close relationship with the uniformity Tipping. With weakly expressed "silver" paint over uneven hair becomes obvious "criminals", and the presence of the yellow band ticking in stained sections of wool attached to the silver color so-called "rust." If the lack of activity of a gene-inhibitor combined with a modifier genes rufizma, at the muzzle, legs, chest animal appear yellow and reddish hues that, of course, also not approved standard. Very often this phenomenon is observed in the offspring from the mating of silver and gold chinchillas.
But sometimes the effect of "rust" suddenly appears and from the descendants of a pair of silver shaded (or, rather, shaded individuals) who do not have these shortcomings. The point here is that silver parents, though, and look superficially similar, genetically distinct.
Strategy and tactics of breeding selection
The strategy of breeding selection of animals in kennels, aimed at improving the quality of silver tippirovannyh colors, can be built differently. Most of the breeder is selecting for increased depigmentation (ie, the increased activity of the gene-inhibitor), thus, increased depigmented (white) zone "overlap" excessive ticking stripes on the hair. In fact, in this version Tipping Chinchillidae color is just a hidden ticking: all his colored zones, except the very top, masked, although the genes that determine them, continue to attend. In another case, with improved color selection is to limit and, ultimately, the disappearance of the lower bands of ticking until then, until the only remaining top black bar, that is the tip of the black hair. Under this option, selecting breeder actually leads to an increase in the selection of the activity of agouti gene (A-). Errors in the selection of breeding pairs of producers might lead to offspring with a combined, ticked-tippirovannym color. Suppose Shaded color cat determined reduced the number of i bands, and exactly the same color for the type of cats increased depigmentation. The sons of the same frequency bands will be determined by "normal" maternal alleles of genes modifiers zonarnosti, and the degree of depigmentation will be reduced due to low activity of the paternal gene inhibitor. As a result, these kittens hidden above the yellow zone ticking manifest clearly.
Complicated hereditary basis of color makes it difficult morphological progress tippirovannyh individuals in any breed. After all, any breed (no matter which) is constantly evolving, and the characteristics of rock types from the best specimens have been increasingly greater expressiveness. The sooner this process is, the more "behind" breed qualities tippirovannyh individuals from the rest only different colored members of the same breed. The fact that attempts to rapidly improve the morphological type of chinchillas with crosses with other color cats often end in failure: the descendants of the first generation are usually obscure color, too dark, "dirty" ticking to gloss over the residual low-contrast pattern. On the regeneration of the color have to spend two or even three generations, but for this time lost almost all the progressive features of the breed type, introduced by crossing.
Another major obstacle to such crossing standardized for tippirovannyh colors eye color. Initially, only the color of his eyes, recognized for Chinchillidae cats, was green, not just green, but with a turquoise hue. That does not mean that a different color of his eyes tippirovannyh animals can not be. Variation tippirovannogo color with orange or bright yellow eyes has been recognized much later, under the additional name "puter". If the color is lodged in the scorecard just like "chinchilla" or "silver shaded, it is by default, means that the animal has a greenish-turquoise eyes.
In the progeny of Green Eyed chinchillas and other animals oranzhevoglazyh color or green or orange eyes are they mostly pale yellow with a green rim around the pupil. On the restoration of pure color eye leaves usually not two, but at least three or four generations. Is it because the last time owners tippirovannyh cats (primarily British), expressing them on the examination, eye color does not show? It's like leaving its definition to the judge what he thinks, even if such and numbers. This can be justified in the first exhibition, but so declare and animals in the highest title! Often the result is that some of the titles, the cat received a silver-shaded green-eyed, and as part of the silver-shaded a computer. The question is: what color the cat certificates are issued as a champion and will be recorded color of this animal in the pedigree of his descendants?
And yet, despite all the difficulties associated with genetics tippirovannogo color, thanks to the hard work of breeders breed type Chinchilla Persians, Exotics, British, Burmilla is steadily improving. One hundred and eleven years of selective breeding were not in vain!
Despite all the difficulties associated with genetics tippirovannogo color, thanks to the hard work of breeders breed type Chinchilla Persians, Exotics, British, Burmilla is steadily improving. One hundred and eleven years of selective breeding were not in vain!
Tips breeder of chinchillas
Keep in excellent shape chinchilla is not easy. Any omission in the care and all at once apparent: yellowing on paws, leaving white with a collar and muzzle. Chinchilla little, and someone good type, but marriage in color, then breeders podschipyvayut or even shave the problem areas of wool. The hardest direct training of wool before the show, but in between the animal exhibits must comply with the breed and color. Chinchilla should always look like a king.
I can not recall without a smile, how much effort (by trial and error), I picked up the cosmetics and detergents for my first cat. For example, a red Persian cat, we started with the "Fairy" washing dishes, then "Schaum maritime power, then to make the brightness of coat color used almost brewed tea ...
In chinchillas, we got lucky. I immediately suggested that it should buy, how to wash it. But it turned out that buying proprietary, very expensive cosmetics only half the battle, but find the right "dose" and how to wash pretty hard. In mezhvystavochny season bathed cat almost twice a week. That coat is too heavy, then dry, then fat, then lost white and appears gray shade. Illanius patiently sat in the bath for 40-50 minutes, until it was treated twice brand shampoo, then bleach or texturing, and then lightening (y chinchillas are yellowing place on the feet, chest, under the tail), then the stabilizer, and even silk conditioner, and Finally, add volume shampoo. Each of these tools were kept for 3-5 minutes, massaging or combing wool, and very good washing with water. After such a bathing dried hair dryer, combs, which took twice the time. And so every time.
Now we have my cat quickly and precisely so. that he needs at the moment, do not touch it for 2-3 weeks, only occasionally brushing his stomach. Wool at this time looks perfect though Take it to the show. But how do we achieve?
Note that the quality of wool affects nutrition, and vitamins. For example, from an excess seaweed dark hair, changing eye color, slightly more vitamin A wool acquires a yellowish tinge.
Larissa Novikova, kennel White Nights Pushkin
In our country, silver chinchilla takes only 5-6 breeders. I first saw this breed, 7 years ago at an exhibition, and she won me at first sight. The more I deal with this breed, the more I want to see more people learn about these beautiful animals with the attractive green eyes and flowing silver hair.
Most silver shaded cats late development. For example, in the first litter I received only 7-8 months has seen the quality kittens.
In Spain, the silver chinchilla is not popular, at FIFe shows silver chinchilla win very rarely. I hope that in future the situation will change.
Elizabeth Buizan, Barcelona (Spain)
In 1960 a British company Kosset Carpets, manufacturer of luxury carpets, chose the chinchilla for gamma advertise their products. The cat appeared in the registered trademarks of, and in television commercials. The first buyers were given kittens chinchillas.
Ivory Silver Lambkin was the first registered representative of the breed. From 1880 on he led his family all the chinchilla. In 1888 he became the best at the exhibition at the Crystal Palace. After his death at age 17 Chuchei lo cat was exhibited at the Museum of Natural History in London.
Princess Victoria, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, bred and exhibited chinchillas. Her interest in this breed these cats made popular in the early 1900's.
In 1903 in his book "The Book of Cats" English breeder and judge Frances Simpson described the chinchilla fur: "bluish-purple color to the tips" and "tips of silver-blue." Other owners of the time described these cats as "pale silver, with a slight purple tint, and almost white hair at the roots," "pure silver bluish tint. V1907, the fur of chinchillas often compared to "pure silver". "Wool is almost white at the roots along the entire length like a touch of shadow, and the ends slightly gray. This is a shade of silver, rather like old-fashioned silver candlesticks, than the new silver spoons. The ideal of" pure silver "should not be black at the tips wool or any other black markings. Only in 1930 became the standard description of Tipping as a "black".
In the story came as the British champion's greatest exhibition "Supreme" Grandchampion Snowbloom Ja'bin breeding Mrs. Evans. He became the first Longhair cat, who won the overall Best in Show at the main exhibition GCCF "Supreme" in 1977.
British chinchilla: Rare and precious color.
At cat shows exclusive British chinchilla always attract attention, looks like a "gimmick" and a sympathetic audience. Chinchillas are charming and regal, their faces always seem richly and brightly due to natural pigmentation - cosmetic. Nature effectively emphasized bottomless black stroke, round, green eyes, a lovely brick nose and lips, curved in a mysterious Cheshire Cat smile. Equally elegant and refined Pestsovoye color coat, wool chinchilla silver white with black tips.
A unique group Chinchillidae colors together related tippirovannye (or "shell") and shaded (or "sheyded") colors.
Tipping (tipping) is called the distribution of pigment along the hair, in which colored (usually black) remains very end, no more than 1 / 8 of total length. Shading (shading) is called a deeper staining, up to 1 / 3 of total length.
British cats Chinchillidae colors for over 15 years officially recognized international feline organizations. However, although the rarity color invariably arouses interest, admiration and delight, the number of its representatives is much lower than in the more common blue, purple and others.
This is due to the fact that this spectacular, but a small group belongs to the complex inherited color, which can only support a dilution in their representatives. Moreover, if the cat chinchilla necessarily fit in with the cat its the same color, to preserve and transmit the descendants of his color, cats can also be used in matings with cats of other colors to get an interesting color variations.
To maintain and consolidate the unique shaded using inbreeding. In this variant of breeding involving not only representatives of the desired quality tippirovaniya, but good "British" type, with a round, massive head and a good strong bones. In the development of breed "promising for further work was considered an sibkrossov (Bratsk-sister mating) and polusibkrossov (interbreeding individuals have a common father or mother) among the descendants of export and domestic Britons.
"We can say that these calculations are largely paid off. Now, 5 years after the start of breeding programs, breeders Moscow has received more than two dozen shaded and chinchilla tippirovannyh British Higher exhibition class."
"The present day Moscow breeders silver British chinchillas can boast truly magnificent animal, worthy of competing at the exhibitions with the British classic colors.
(I. Shustrova, Ph.D., an expert WCF and IFSJ. "Friend" 6-7, 1998)
Inna Shustrova, magazine other cats, 12, 200